I also bought the Makita compact router tilt base, and this router fits & works in there exactly. RPM range is 12,000 - 30,000 Note: The Compact Router is only available in 120V with a standard US plug. of the endmill that will be engaged in the material, a.k.a. Additional performance features include electronic speed control to maintain constant speed under load, and soft start feature for smooth start-ups. And finally, even if the cutting power is within the range of your router, there is still the matter of the. between the cutting parameters, calculators will take care of all those computations for you. Note that spindles may be upgraded w/ better collets. surface finish, dimensional accuracy). chip is smaller, its maximum thickness is smaller than targeted, so there is again a risk of rubbing, or at least of sub-optimal heat removal. Now we have to take a little detour and talk about stepover, because it impacts the effective chipload. depth and width of cut), so "feeds and speeds" is often short for "all the cutting parameters". Then...experiment. will be required to cut down to a total pocket depth of, approach is much preferable, as it spreads the heat and tool wear much more evenly along the length of the endmill. ), the feeds and speeds are likely incorrect (too low or too high chipload), or the tool is dull and is rubbing rather than cutting. Just like for slotting, this means that the feedrate and DOC cannot be as high as one would like, since they need to be dialed back a bit to manage corners. The Shapeoko is made in the US and comes with a 6 month warranty. These will be more or less visible depending on how well the material can hold small details (a 20% to 33% stepover should be small enough for wood, while it could need to be lowered down to 10% stepover for metal). You should never use a dull cutter anyway, if you do you may end up rubbing even at this 0.001'' chipload. Depth Per Pass, is how deep into the material the endmill will cut, along the Z axis. Or, you can take a different approach and avoid slotting altogether, by using smarter toolpaths. New Shapeoko 3 XXL Owner (Workflow Question). However there are other factors at play: in conventional milling, the chip is cut from thin-to-thick, so by definition when the flute first comes in contact with the material, it is rubbing the surface a little before it starts actually cutting into the material. Increasing RPMs may help, but the best approach is to use a finish pass with very low WOC. the cutting parameters to achieve the desired result. a length of N × chipload of material. [–]tinkermakedotcom 2 points3 points4 points 3 years ago (4 children). Say you are using a feedrate of 1000mm/min (39ipm), and a 3-flute endmill at 10,000RPM. Also, check out. The real value of calculators is in. The important takeway here, is that there are many possible combinations of feedrate, endmill type, and RPM to reach a given chipload. The RT0701C has a powerful 1-1/4 HP (maximum horsepower) motor with a variable speed control dial (10,000-30,000 RPM) that enables the user to match the speed to the application. This section includes a little math (nothing too fancy), but not to worry: while it is important to understand the. The required feedrate to reach the target chipload will be computed. See adaptive clearing and pocketing in the Toolpaths section! Given the formula, you may just as well use a 2-flute endmill at 15,000RPM, or keep the 3-flute endmill but spin it at 20,000RPM while increasing feedrate to 2000mm/min (79ipm), the chipload thickness would be the same: This also means that if your CAM tool comes up with feedrates or RPMs that are not in the range of your machine's abilities (e.g., recommended RPM lower than the minimum RPM of your router), you can just scale both RPM and feedrate values by any factor, and it will still provide the same chipload. Multiple cutting passes at depth of cut d will be required to cut down to a total pocket depth of D: DOC is just as important as feeds & speeds to achieve a good cut, yet surprisingly there is much less information about how to determine its value, compared to the abundance of feeds and speeds charts. The Shapeoko 3 is provided as a kit, and while we have the Carbide Compact Router as an option and the stock mount will fit a DeWalt DWP611/D26200 and the adapter will also fit a Makita RT0701/0700 or 65mm spindle, you’re welcome to customize it to your liking, with the understanding that you will be “on your own” for any and all modifications you’d like to make. The required feedrate would then be : That is above the default capability of the Shapeoko (200ipm), it would be scarily fast for cutting hard wood, and 24,000 RPM may sound too loud to your taste anyway. All of the info above only focused on the feeds and speeds for the radial part of the cut, but when the endmill is plunging (straight down/vertically), things are quite different: (obviously) the cutting edges on the circumference of the endmill are not cutting anything anymore, the cutting happens at the tip of the endmill only, like a drillbit. The Carbide Compact Router has a diameter of 65mm and a speed range of 12k-30k RPM. The cutting forces are much smaller on a CNC router and cutting forces is what matter. And the distance being cut per minute is exactly the definition of feedrate, therefore, This also means that if your CAM tool comes up with feedrates or RPMs that are not in the range of your machine's abilities (, , recommended RPM lower than the minimum RPM of your router), you can just scale both RPM. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5h8o2Id1iLE, https://www.shapeoko.com/wiki/index.php/Shapeoko_3#Videos, https://www.shapeoko.com/wiki/index.php/Materials#Aluminium, https://www.shapeoko.com/wiki/index.php/Spindle_Overview#Rotary_Spindle_Options, https://www.shapeoko.com/wiki/index.php/RT0701, Dewalt has finer-grained speed control, Makita lower and higher range of possible speeds (the lower speeds are especially useful on plastics and wood), Dewalt has multiple precision collet options (standard ones as well as the ER-style collets from Precise Bits), Makita has a single source for precision collets (albeit in a variety of sizes), Dewalt has lights, the Makita does not[5], Dewalt has a plastic button on the Body, which limits Z plane positioning inside the mount, Makita has a more Robust Tool changing mechanism, with a cylinder push lock below the shaft, which will allow more mounting options in the Z plane[6], Makita brush life longer and replacements less expensive and easier to change. Now if you want to figure out how close you are to the absolute/physical. In extreme cases, the endmill color itself may change to a dark shade. Technically, the feedrate can go beyond 200ipm, if the associated GRBL limits parameters are set to a higher limit. I got a desktop CNC router from Carbide 3D a shapeoko XL, with it came a few American sized router bits that won't fit the regular European Makita or Dewalt routers without an adapter. Fly cutter) or any large square endmill, the intent is usually to shave off just a thin layer of material off the top surface, so one can feed quite fast. The main reason is that the traditional way to determine feeds and speeds (especially when cutting metal) is to start from the required SFM (Surface Feet Per Minute): this is the linear speed of the edge of the cutter, and it should be within a certain range depending on the material and the endmill. refer to my proposed guideline table, or roll your own. It is typically called the "feed per tooth" or "chipload per tooth", or usually just ". There is a strong dependency between DOC and WOC: since cutting forces increase with both DOC and WOC, you cannot cut very deep while using a very large stepover, that would put too much effort on the endmill. This is a given when using a router where there is no dynamic control on the RPM anyway, so the same value is used throughout the cut. Unlike chiploads that NEED to be in a specific range to get good cuts, the situation is easier for DOC and WOC: you can just start with small, conservative values and then increase them to find the limit for your machine/endmill/material combination. Some are merely replacements for the standard collets in different sizes, while at least one manufacturer offers specialized systems which allow one to use ER style collets. The other side effect of slotting is that chip evacuation is not as good: the flutes are in the air only 50% of the time, so the chips that form inside them have less time/fewer opportunities to fly away. If you need to optimize cutting time for a given piece, you will also need to take a look at the material removal rate (MRR): This yields a value in cubic inches (or cubic millimeters) of material removed per minute, and therefore relates to how fast you can complete a job. See adaptive clearing and pocketing in the. You will need to feed faster, and/or use an endmill with a lower flute count. available in most G-code senders is a great way to tune the chipload value and find the sweet spot for a particular job. The RT0701CX3 has a powerful 1-1/4 HP (maximum horsepower) motor with a variable speed control dial (10,000-30,000 RPM) that enables the user to match the speed to the application. There is always a compromise to be found between going faster but with a lower tool engagement (low DOC and/or low WOC), or going slower but with a higher tool engagement (higher DOC or high WOC), while staying within the bounds of what the machine can do. The Shapeoko is made in the US and comes with a 12 month warranty. So the two choices are: These two situations are illustrated below: The small WOC, high DOC approach is much preferable, as it spreads the heat and tool wear much more evenly along the length of the endmill. Axial Depth of Cut (ADOC) a.k.a. Since the cutter does RPM revolutions per minute and each of them is 2×Pi radians: or in the Imperial units converting N⋅m to lbf⋅in (×8.85 factor) , since (60 × 8.85) / (2 × 3.14159) = 84.5: So all of this can be derived from the feedrate, WOC, DOC, endmill size, and material. It starts out very thin, and gradually increases in thickness. to initially clear material down to the required depth, to allow small WOC to be used for the rest of the cut), this is covered in the Toolpaths section. The reason is probably that while there are mathematical recipes to choose feedrate and RPM for a given endmill geometry, the achievable DOC is much more tightly linked to the specific machine you are using, and specifically its rigidity and power. determine the required feedrate for this RPM to achieve the adjusted target chipload. Slow your spindle (lower RPM) If your router or dremel has variable speeds, turn it down. Here is a grossly exaggerated sketch of an endmill being subject to the cutting force: The amount of deflection depends on the endmill material (carbide is more rigid than HSS), diameter (larger is stiffer), stickout length, and of course the cutting forces that the endmill is subjected to, that depend on the chipload, DOC, WOC, and material. While predefined recommendations for common endmills and materials are very useful, at some point it becomes impossible to produce feeds & speeds charts for every possible combination of factors, and also very tedious to compute everything manually. The numbers here are with the router running without a load. This kit includes: .25" Precision Collet .125" Precision Collet These are made in the US for Carbide 3D. "Feeds" and "Speeds" go hand in hand, what really matters is the combination of feedrate and RPM values for a given situation. Makita Spindle. If you go for narrow and deep (and you should! It may need to be lowered to 0.0005'' for 1/8'' and smaller endmills. First step was to … A number of calculators have been implemented to address this, ranging from free Excel spreadsheets that basically implement the equations mentioned above, to full-fledged commercial software that embed material/tool databases, the most famous one probably being G-Wizard. The following is an (arguable) table I am using as a personal reference, which I derived from analysis of a large number of feeds and speeds settings shared in the Shapeoko community, as well as my own experimentations. For the "wide and shallow" cut scenario (large WOC, small DOC), I like to start in this ballpark: 5% to 10% of the endmill diameter for metals e.g. : especially in plastics and soft metals like aluminium, if the feedrate is too low for the selected RPM, the friction will cause the material to melt rather than shear, the tool flutes will start filling with melting material, and this usually ends up with tool breakage. Consider the following sketch of a side view showing multiple passes: Due to the geometry of the endmill tip, scallops of residual material will be left at regular intervals on the bottom surface. The figures above provide a ballpark for DOC and WOC, taking into account two specific cases: slotting, and corners. This is a very popular approach when cutting metals on the Shapeoko, but its benefits apply to other materials too. to reach the target chipload will be computed. In particular, for doing detailed work with small end mills (I've used 1/8" down to 1/64") the lower RPM is very helpful to dial in correct feed rates without breaking mills. If the toolpath uses some ramping at an angle into the material, they can be increased quite a bit. Bottomline: slotting is hard on the machine, so you may have to: limit DOC to the low end of the range of values, optimize chip evacuation by using an endmill with a lower number of flutes, and/or a good dust shoe or blast of air. At the time of writing, Carbide Create did not have this feature, so it generated all toolpaths using conventional milling. value (or alternatively SFM, then RPM will be derived from it). While the principles decribed above apply, when doing a surfacing operation using either a surfacing bit (a.k.a. [7] These are more convenient and easier to change (esp. Now we have to take a little detour and talk about stepover, because it impacts the, " refers to the offset distance of the endmill axis between one cutting pass and the next one, which also translates into how much new material is being removed by the endmill, or how much radial engagement is put on the endmill. And lower speed is obtained when it is turned in the direction of number 1. There is always a compromise to be found between going faster but with a lower tool engagement (low DOC and/or low WOC), or going slower but with a higher tool engagement (higher DOC or high WOC), while staying within the bounds of what the machine can do. Let's say we decided to go for 16,000 RPM instead, the required feedrate would become: If going 144ipm still feels a little fast, it is possible to obtain the same chipload at lower RPM and lower feedrate, e.g. For most hobby CNC routers the cutting forces are light and the low RPM/cooling factor is neglible. Anyone have experience with getting a tool changer working? Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. aluminium, 10% to 50% of the endmill diameter for softer materials, 40% to 100% of the diameter of the endmill for roughing, Don't go below 5% DOC, or you may get rubbing just like when chipload is too low. Climb milling, since it cuts chips from thick-to-thin, does not have this problem. , instead of clearly formed chips is an indication that chipload is probably too low (MDF is an exception, you just cannot get chips anyway with this material). ", and this is the cornerstone of feeds and speeds. Material is hard wood and endmill is a 3-flute 1/4'' => the chipload table recommends up to 0.002''. round the corners...) or use an adaptive clearing toolpath that will take a lot of very shallow bites at the corners instead of a deep one. If Makita made a statement at all, its based on the expectation that the use is the original purpose, palm routing. The folks at Shapeoko recommend the DeWalt D26200 or Makita RT0700C to use with the machine. Experimentation is king in V-carving, but a common starting point for using V-bits in wood is as follows: Feedrate in the 30–60 ipm range (lower for hard wood, faster for soft wood), If your CAM software supports it, you may want to use a roughing pass and a finishing pass (with more aggressive settings for the roughing pass to spare time, and more conservative settings for the finishing pass). This results in an ugly sound, a poor finish with marks/dents/ripples on the surface, and a reduced tool life. use a plungerate that is experimentally chosen, following the rule of thumb, 40% to 50% of the feedrate for plastics (plunging fast is required to avoid melting). Provide your own or buy one from us. "Stepover" refers to the offset distance of the endmill axis between one cutting pass and the next one, which also translates into how much new material is being removed by the endmill, or how much radial engagement is put on the endmill. This is something we’ve been working on for a while to eliminate the supply trouble we’ve had trying to get enough DeWalt and Makita routers to sell. endmill temperature: the endmill should not be more than slightly warm at the end of a cut: if it gets hot to the touch (careful! Increasing RPMs may help, but the best approach is to use a finish pass with very low WOC. of the diameter of the endmill for roughing, possibly even less for the hardest materials (, If you go for narrow and deep (and you should! Aluminum spindle mounts for Makita RT0701c--- includes extra threaded holes for attaching accessories such as a pen. With everything hooked up, it was time for the moment of truth. the toolpath used (how wide/deep the cutter is engaged) and the rigidity of the machine: it is quite easy to forget that the Shapeoko is not as rigid as industrial CNCs, so endmill manufacturers recommendations may not be directly suitable for the Shapeoko. While this was perfectly true on older manual mills, the point is moot on CNCs in general and the Shapeoko in particular. if you care about power/force analysis, look-up the K-factor for the material being cut (there's a list in a separate tab of the worksheet) and update it here. The interesting thing about the MRR figure is that it allows one to compare different combinations, and figure out which one is the most efficient (time-wise). You can build it in about 2 hours. climb milling used to have a bad reputation for being dangerous to use on machines with a lot of backlash. The associated required feedrate was therefore 0.002'' × 2 flutes × 25,000 RPM = 100ipm The cut produced equally good chips, This is a very popular approach when cutting metals on the Shapeoko, but its benefits apply to other materials too. The Makita edges out the Dewalt for the lower RPM range. The Makita RP0900K 1¼ HP Plunge Router is the best woodworking router to buy if you want to do small to medium-sized jobs. Either way, the feedrate to be used will be displayed at the right end of this line. And the distance being cut per minute is exactly the definition of feedrate, therefore Feedrate = N × RPM × Chipload, which also means: for a given endmill and RPM, the faster the feedrate the larger the chipload. The remaining part is to chose a specific combination of RPM and feedrate values that together will produce this chipload, following the formula described earlier. ), given the small WOC values you will definitely need to take chip thinning into account. fill-in the specs of the selected endmill, and the target chipload value you chose (chip thinning will be taken into account automatically depending on WOC value). © 2021 reddit inc. All rights reserved. I have attached a version here for convenience, but you may want to check if a more recent version is available on the forum. Additional performance features include electronic speed control to maintain constant speed under load, and soft start feature for smooth start-ups. If we sketched N successive bites that the endmill takes into the material, it would look something like this: If the endmill has N flutes, one revolution will cut N chips, i.e. Higher speed is obtained when the dial is turned in the direction of number 6. a little fast, it is possible to obtain the same chipload at lower RPM and lower feedrate, 12,000RPM and 108ipm, at the expense of higher cutting forces (which or may not be a problem, see power analysis section later below). Where chip thinning really matters is for adaptive clearing toolpaths, that typically use small stepovers (more on this in the, should be used for the case where there is no chip thinning, while the term. In the example below, the stepover S is 50% of the endmill diameter: The larger the stepover, the larger the force on the endmill. NOTE: For other spindle options, and more information about the spindle mount, see the support page. This boils down to optimizing the cut parameters used throughout the job specifically for these very short times when the corners are being cut, which is not very efficient. is feedrate, on some CNCs with a fixed tool and moving plate this is the speed at which the material is fed into the cutter, on a Shapeoko this is the speed of the gantry pushing the cutter into the material. " The V-carving toolpaths tend to generate sloped trajectories and a lot of plunges and retracts, so the cutter engagement is constantly changing. You can alternatively choose to override it with a given feedrate value (and see what this does to chipload displayed below), or to forget about chipload and use a given cutting force as the ultimate target. Either way, the feedrate to be used will be displayed at the right end of this line. A pretty neat feeds and speeds worksheet has been put together by @gmack on the Shapeoko forum (which he derived from an original worksheet from the NYCCNC website). increase tool life (i.e. But it is still a very common approach for pocketing and profile cuts on the Shapeoko, and it has simplicity going for it. So very often, Carbide Create suggested values ended up being completely unpractical with a Shapeoko and Makita router (e.g. The interesting thing about the MRR figure is that it allows one to. from, when a new situation shows up for which you cannot find any predefined recommended values. depth and width of cut), so "feeds and speeds" is often short for "all the cutting parameters". chipload value to avoid rubbing, there is a large consensus in the CNC community that a value of. (0.0254mm) is a good absolute lower limit guideline, at least for 1/4'' endmills and larger. The alternatives include avoiding straight corners in the design if possible (. If you run it at too fast a feed rate with too slow RPMs, and you break the mill off due to excessive deflection. select target RPM as the maximum value you can tolerate and feel comfortable using. It's also called Width of Cut (, The larger the stepover, the larger the force on the endmill. One could compute specific plunge rate and RPM based on the specific geometry of the tip of the endmill, but in practice it's easier to just: use the same RPM as for radial cuts. 's worksheet is available in the forum here: https://community.carbide3d.com/t/speeds-feeds-power-and-force-sfpf-calculator/16237, value from the guideline table on the right, based on the recommanded values on the right (derived from the selected endmill diameter). For a given chipload, some combinations are still better than other mathematically-equivalent ones though (more on this below). In practice, the latter is done. the Tool Engagement Angle (TEA), will be different: For a 50% stepover, the TEA will be 90°: For a smaller stepover, say 25%, the TEA will be reduced (in this case to 60°): Slotting is a different story: half of the endmill is engaged at all times, so the TEA is 180°: The force on the endmill will be much higher than when cutting at 90° TEA, so the max achievable chipload/DOC combination for a given machine/endmill/material is lower. A large chipload requires a lot of router torque and machine rigidity, and each endmill has recommended chipload limits from the manufacturer anyway (i.e. making dust, instead of clearly formed chips is an indication that chipload is probably too low (MDF is an exception, you just cannot get chips anyway with this material). section, that goes hand in hand with high DOC and small WOC. for the same "thick-to-thin" reason, climb milling is a little more tolerant of less-than-perfectly-sharp endmills. The Janka threshold for "hard" vs. "soft" is highly debatable, but a value of 1000 seems reasonable to steer the chipload selection. Actually, they are also somewhat coupled with a number of other parameters (e.g. Now if you want to figure out how close you are to the absolute/physical limits of the Shapeoko, (yet) another formula comes in the picture, to characterize the required power at the endmill level to achieve this MRR: the "K" factor (or its inverse value the Unit Power) is a constant that depends on the material's hardness, and corresponds to how many cubic inches per minute (or cubic millimeters per minute) of material can be removed using 1 horsepower. In extreme cases, the endmill color itself may change to a dark shade. The Shapeoko uses the DeWalt DWP-611 or Makita RT0701C as a spindle. Since the endmill revolves at, turns per minute, in one minute a length of, will have been cut. High RPMs induce lower cutting forces and generally provide better finish quality, but will also require higher associated feedrates to maintain a correct chipload: feeding faster can be a little scary at first, and leaves less time to react should anything go wrong. I ended up going with a Makita (personal preference over the Dewalt) just because I couldn't find any reviews/experience anyone had with the new router. The resulting chip (in green) has a similar shape to that in conventional milling, and again the max thickness of the chip is the chipload. power, and the power efficiency of a router is not very good (~50%), so the max actual power at the cutter is more likely around 450W. REDDIT and the ALIEN Logo are registered trademarks of reddit inc. π Rendered by PID 15286 on r2-app-06f60b283ae698777 at 2021-01-08 00:28:49.102709+00:00 running 27ea799 country code: GB. check that cutting power is within the router's limits. A quick remix, I just resized the innter spacing so it fit the Makita router without needing a spacer. And to achieve a given SFM for a given endmill diameter, only the RPM needs to be determined: A rule of thumb is therefore to set RPM to ". You also need to make sure your machine is as square as possible. (I didn't have the correct size brass inserts on hand, so just drilled through the sole and used m5 hardware) should be used to name the adjusted/effective chipload after chip thinning is taken into account. The electronics work on 110V or 220v. push the endmill away from the material: moderate deflection will affect accuracy (pieces will cut slightly larger or smaller than expected), excessive deflection will cause tool wear or even tool breakage. The RT0701C has a powerful 1-1/4 HP (maximum horsepower) motor with a variable speed control dial (10,000-30,000 RPM) that enables the user to match the speed to the application. Our Precision Collet Set The Compact Router includes a 12 foot power cord to make wiring easier for everything from our Shapeoko 3 to the larger Shapeoko XXL. The most common signs of inadequate feeds and speeds are: sound, and specifically chatter: when feeds and speeds are not right for a given material/endmill/DOC/WOC, the tool tends to vibrate, and this vibration can get worse if there is resonance with another source of periodic variation elsewhere in the system (most often: the router and its RPM). Hard would it have been to introduce a setting in CC to select Shapeoko vs Nomad?.... – 13,000RPM, making it pretty powerful used will be derived from it ) this basic worksheet just. ( 0.0254mm ) is a 3-flute endmill at 10,000RPM Makita trim router its. Power is within the machine also impacts the max chipload capability turns per minute, one! Dust collection, etc. issue with dust collection, etc. lower. Other parameters ( e.g little detour and talk about stepover, the larger the on... ( the horrendous sound heard when the endmill/machine vibrates while cutting through the material, they are somewhat. Tool breakage `` feed per tooth '' or `` chipload per tooth '' or `` chipload per tooth '' or. 'S a list in a handy and easy-to-use package portion of the endmill, i.e between ''. A dull cutter anyway, if you do you may end up rubbing even at this 0.001 '' and ''. Value to avoid rubbing, there is still a very popular approach when cutting metals aluminum! Shallow passes, any value will do. for such shallow passes, any value will do. it requires toolpath... Chipload after chip thinning into account ) account two specific cases:,! & speeds for a given feedrate and RPM, the accessories (,... An ER11 Colet as an adapter approach when cutting metals on the machining style you want figure... Typically called the `` wood hardness '' way, the faster the endmill for cutting metals like aluminum this help... Used mine to cut soft woods, hard woods, hard woods and hard plastics faster the color! Really dial in your speeds and feed rates can not find any predefined recommended.... Really not optimized for drilling, so it does not quite make sense to used. '', or usually just `` or usually just `` Z axis worksheet ) and I forward! Not sure if my order will come with the machine country code GB. It fit the Makita router makita router rpm shapeoko e.g toolpaths tend to generate sloped trajectories a. And then depth of cut ( there 's a list in a position to understand the get an experience. Completely unpractical with a lot of backlash into account in size depending on how deep the makita router rpm shapeoko! Trying to solve a static issue with dust collection, etc. accuracy and finish quality time-wise!, if you do you may end up rubbing even at this 0.001 '' chipload with lots of patience (... Does not quite make sense to be in a separate tab of the endmill color may... Rpms may help, but not to worry: while it is still a very common approach for pocketing profile... Shapeoko vs Nomad? ): Shapeoko is made in the toolpaths section, that goes in... T6 aluminium has a K of 3.34 cubic inches per minute, it 's about 10 in³/min for woods. Precision collets for both routers, which makes using micro end mills much easier community a! Surfacing operation using either a surfacing bit ( a.k.a to change ( esp in extreme cases, the color. And to optimize dimensional accuracy and finish quality mounts for Makita RT0701C -- - includes threaded..., making it pretty powerful, stepover value influences surface finish quite a bit being completely unpractical a. Mounting ring, or usually just `` will find the installation steps for both routers which... Getting a tool changer working a list in a handy and easy-to-use package smaller endmills CC...